Man and cosmos so much (in historical terms) time passed since that memorable April morning in 1961, and today the near-earth space turned into a working area that people began not only to study but to inhabit and use in the interests of science and the national economy. More and more messengers take space.
Not easy to give us the first steps in its unknown depths, because of the way the person is found with the impact of a complex set of environmental factors. Some of them are associated with the dynamics of space flight is excessive congestion, noise, and vibration at the exit of the rocket in outer space, as well as the state of weightlessness during the flight in orbit. Other difficulties arise from the specific characteristics of human presence in space of small volume and limit its mobility, the originality of life and working conditions in outer space, neuro-psychological stress caused by the unusual situation compared to earth.
Finally, the factors that characterize the uniqueness of the habitat in which the existence of man without special means of protection (full vacuum, ionizing radiation, meteorite showers, extreme temperatures, etc.). For the majority of the inhabitants of the Land, space remains unattainable.
The Earth’s atmosphere creates humans and other living beings the necessary conditions for life and protects against a range of harmful factors of the world space (e.g., cosmic, ultraviolet, and other rays).
The altitude of 24000 m arises the need to use pressurized cabins regeneration, as maintaining an appropriate physiological needs of the pressure in the cabin with the help of the compressor that pulls air from the outside, it is no longer possible due to technical, thermodynamic and Toxicological reasons. At the height of from 36 to 40 km for cosmic rays and 42… 45 km for ultraviolet rays with wavelengths of 300… …2100 nm of the overlying layer of the atmosphere is insufficient for their absorption and biological begins to show damaging effects of these rays.
Over 100 … 120 km above the Earth there is the danger of meeting with meteorites. The extreme rarefaction of the atmosphere leads to the fact that there are not sound waves, no light scattering — this creates unusual lighting conditions: contrasts between brightly lit and shaded. surfaces-therefore impossible normal perception of depth of space.
As you know, the distance from the Earth decreases its gravitational force and thus the weight of all items: for example, at an altitude of 6400 km (a distance equal to one radius of the Earth) the weight of the items is 1/4 of the original, but off 57600 and 12800 km, respectively, it is 1/9 *and 1/60 share of its weight on the Earth’s surface. Based on the foregoing, it is obvious to go into outer space, the rocket must overcome two powerful carapaces: the atmosphere and the gravitation of the Earth.
There are some features associated with the dynamics of the flight of the launch vehicle of the spacecraft. Consider the main of them are: the overload associated with the accelerated motion of a rocket and weightlessness caused by the flight conditions of the spacecraft in earth orbit.